The ‘ologies ‘ (understanding academic disciplines) of primary health care

著者名:Trisha Greenhalgh
文献タイトル:PRIMARY HEALTH CARE -theory and practice-(BMJ books). 
雑誌名・書籍名:Blackwell Publishing. P23-56

Two medical disciplines are very important to effective practice
1  Biomedical science (anatomy, physiology, pathology, cardiology, pharmacology and so on)
2  Epidemiology (the study of disease patterns in populations and interventions to change these)

However, these medical sciences would give us a narrow and incomplete view of primary care. 
This chapter covers six additional disciplines that underpin an academic perspectives on primary care.

1 Psychology
  The scientific study of mind and behavior. There are broad scope of knowledge…
  Ex: Cognitive – , Social – , Development- , Educational-…

2 Sociology
  The study of human society and the relationship between its members.
  Peter Berger says that Sociology is to discover many layers of meaning. 
    Ex: Sick role, Professional role, Medical Uncertainty …

3 Anthropology(人類学)
  The study of human.
    a Structuralist -:
To discover what universal principles of the human mind underlie each culture.  
Ex. Claude Levi-Strauss (1st researcher about Family Structure)
  Ferdinand de Saussure (Famous Linguist, to discover the unconscious rules and principles embedded within a language 『肩が凝る』)
  b Post- Structuralist- :
    Anthropology developed out of structuralism, that are closely to the work of Pierre Bourdieu.
    Symbolic capital as a crucial source of power. 
  c Symbolic -:
        To analyze symbols (image, courtesy, idol/icon) meaning in culture system. 
        Ex: Mary Douglas (Purity and Danger : What is defined “Dirty” in different societies )
            『こんにゃくゼリー choked risk is lower than rice cake, but more “dirty” in Japan』

4 Literary Theory 
   Theory of literature and literacy criticism. 
     Ex: Patient Story, Voice of Medicine/ Voice of Human World. 

5 Philosophy, including epistemology(認識論)
  a  Epistemology :the study of valid forms of knowledge.
Ex : Scepticism(懐疑論), Rationalism, Empiricism, Objectivism, Relativism…
    b  Moral philosophy : the study of moral value of human behavior.
        Ex: Consequentialism(結果主義), Deontology(義務的倫理学), Virtue ethics, Emotivism
    c  Rhetoric and logic : the study of persuasion.

6 Pedagogy (= Learning Theory)
  a  Experimental learning theory
    b  Social learning theory
    c  Social development theory